Acts Website Appendix Y: Clause Key

Clause Combining and Highlighted Subject

A clause complex joined by hypotaxis is denoted by the use of a clause code where any individual clauses are denoted by decimal points. So, A0101 is a hypotactic clause complex with 8 clauses. Every hypotactic clause complex must and can only have one MI clause. Within any hypotactic clause complex there may also be clause sub-complexes which again will have one dominant (I) clause. So, A0101 actually has four clause sub-complexes. Every PB clause is part of the clause complex or sub-complex denoted by the following relevant I clause. Every PA clause is part of the clause complex or sub-complex denoted by the previous relevant I clause. So, A0101.6-8 form an R3 clause sub-complex. In order to assist in identification of clause sub-complexes, a preceeding medium (4px) dotted purple dividing line is used in the chapter and verse column, or, where embedded, () or {}.

Nearly all clause complexes have only one dominant subject, which will be double underlined. The dominant subject will occur most often explicitly in the MI clause or, occasionally, in a preceding MPB clause. It is, however possible that the explicit subject may appear in an opening clause sub-complex with E or S0. The situation in which a clause complex has more than one dominant subject is where there are one or more R3 clause sub-complexes and they do not share the same dominant subject.

Finally, a paratactic clause complex consists of more than one hypotactic clause complex which share the same dominant subject and the clause complexes are linked with either καί or τέ. So, for example, A0104-5 forms a paratactic clause complex. A paratactic clause complex can also be formed where the last R3 clause sub-complex in a clause complex has the same dominant subject as the following clause complex, as in A0101-2. A paratactic clause complex is denoted by a thick (6px) green continuous dividing line between clause complexes.

Clause Delimeters
Clause Grouping Clause Separator
New EpisodeVery thick (10px) solid grey line
New Clause (Super-)ComplexVery thick (8px) solid blue line
New Clause Complex, within a Clause Super-ComplexThick (6px) solid green line
New Clause Sub-ComplexMedium (4px) dotted purple line
Relative ClausesThin (2px) dashed red line


Story Structure Clause Codes

1Opening Situation 
 1.1ApertureSome form of opening formula such as ‘in those days’ (Acts 1:15).
 1.2AbstractA brief overview of what follows, normally focussing on the outcome, e.g. 19:23.
 1.3OrientationInformation about characters and setting. This tends to appear at the start of an episode thereby helping us to identify a new episode. However, in certain cases, some information may be delayed, e.g. 19:7 where we belatedly learn the number of disciples originally introduced in 19:1.
2Action A series of events that are causally and temporally related which describes the transformation (change) from the ‘opening situation’ to the closing ‘situation’. Each event will then fall into one of three sub-categories:
 2.1Inititating EventThe trigger event for what follows and appears without explicit cause.
 2.2Intermediate EventThe event(s), if any, between the initiating event and the outcome event.
 2.2*Peak EventSome of the Intermediate Events may be marked as Peak Event(s) by their heightened dramatic tension.
 2.3Outcome EventThe final event in the action sequence, the ‘most reportable event’.
3Closing Situation 
 3.1ResolutionThe action may continue with another episode or scene that follows events to an ultimate conclusion of the consequences of the outcome event.
 3.2EvaluationThe narrator may evaluate the significance of important events. This evaluation is often dramatized through the words or actions of one or more characters.
 3.3CodaThe narrator may round off the story by projecting beyond the time of the plot to a later time.
4Summary Finally, Acts contains some material that is not clearly connected to one particular episode but exists between episodes and functions to connect episodes together, often in summary format.

Note: The colours will be used for the detailed analysis of Acts

Verb Encoding & Colour Conventions

TenseIndicative / SubjunctiveParticipleInfinitive
Aoristvia / vsa (Red Bold)vpa (Red)vna (Red Bold Italic)
Imperfectvii (Green Bold)  
Presentvip (Turquoise Bold)vpp (Green)vnp (Green Bold Italic)
Perfectvix (Blue Bold)vpx (Blue)vnx (Blue Bold Italic)
Pluperfectviy (Purple Bold)  
Future vpf (Yellow) 


Clause Key

This ‘clause key’ sets out the codes used to identify the syntactical function and story function of each narrative clause in Acts.

  Conjunction Type Before Participial Independent After Participial
Main δέ  MPB MI MPA
Main καί  MPB MI MPA
Main τέ  MPB MI MPA
Main μέν οὖν  MPB MI MPA
Main οὖν  MPB MI MPA
Main τότε  MPB MI MPA
Main ἀλλά  MPB MI MPA
Main asyndeton  MPB MI MPA
Relative ὅς 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative ὅστις 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative ὅσος 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative οὗτος 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative γάρ 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative ὅθεν 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Relative ὅπου 1, 2 or 3 R?PB R?I R?PA
Subordinate δέ Parenthetic S0PB S0I S0PA
Subordinate καί Parenthetic S0PB S0I S0PA
Subordinate τέ Parenthetic S0BP S0I S0PA
Subordinate ὅτε Temporal S1BP S1I S1PA
Subordinate ὡς Temporal S1BP S1I S1PA
Subordinate γάρ Cause S3BP S3I S3PA
Subordinate ὅτι Cause S3BP S3I S3PA
Subordinate διά + acc. Cause S3BP S3I S3PA
Subordinate other Cause S3BP S3I S3PA
Subordinate ὥστε + inf. Result S4BP S4I S4PA
Subordinate οὖν Result S4BP S4I S4PA
Subordinate διό Result S4BP S4I S4PA
Subordinate ἵνα + subj. Purpose S5BP S5I S5PA
Subordinate ὅπως Purpose S5BP S5I S5PA
Subordinate καθώς Comparative S6BP S6I S6PA
Subordinate καθότι Comparative S6BP S6I S6PA
Subordinate ἐάν + subj. Condition S7BP S7I S7PA
Subordinate δέ Contrast S8BP S8I S8PA
Content ὅτι 1, 2, 3 or 4 <<C1?>>
Content - 1, 2, 3 or 4 <<C0?>>
Phrase - Temporal PT
Phrase - Spatial PS
Phrase - Character PC
Ἐγένετο δέ, καί Frame E?I


Participial Clause Type Code
Attendant Circumstance (Subordinate Event) 01
Character Frame 02
Tail-Head 03
Temporal 11
Spatial 12
Cause 13
Result 14
Purpose 15
Condition 17
Concession 18
Manner 21
Manner (Speech) 22
Means 23
Redundant/Means (Speech) 24
Periphrastic 31
Complementary 32

So, for example, ὃς ἰδὼν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην μέλλοντας εἰσιέναι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν in Acts 3:3 is classified as R3PB13, i.e. a non-definitive continuative participial clause positioned before the main verb and functioning as a causal participial clause.